WhiteClouds builds 3D Raised Relief Maps
Calcareous refers to rocks or soil that contain calcium carbonate or limestone. This type of rock is often formed from the accumulation of shells, coral, or other marine organisms. Calcareous deposits can be found in a variety of environments, including ocean floors, caves, and karst landscapes.
A caldera is a large, bowl-shaped depression that forms when a volcano collapses after an eruption. These formations are typically several kilometers in diameter and can be found around the world. Calderas are often filled with water and are surrounded by steep cliffs or slopes. One well-known example is the Yellowstone Caldera in the United States, which is over 70 kilometers wide.
The Cambrian period, named after a region in Wales, was a geologic period that occurred approximately 541 million years ago. This period is known for the diversification of life forms, including the appearance of many different types of invertebrates. The Cambrian is also notable for the formation of the first recognizable continents.
A canyon is a deep, narrow valley with steep sides. These formations are typically carved by rivers or glaciers over thousands or millions of years. Canyons can be found all over the world, and some of the most famous examples include the Grand Canyon in the United States and the Fish River Canyon in Namibia.
Cap rock is a layer of hard, erosion-resistant rock that sits on top of softer, more easily eroded rock. This layer protects the underlying rock from weathering and erosion. Cap rock formations can be found in many different environments, including deserts and canyons. One well-known example is the Hoodoos in Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah, which are formed by cap rock protecting softer rock from erosion.
Carrying capacity refers to the maximum population that an ecosystem can support over an extended period without suffering significant degradation. The carrying capacity of an area depends on factors such as soil quality, water availability, and food resources. This concept is crucial in understanding how human activities impact natural systems and how we can manage them sustainably.
Cartographers are professionals who create maps, charts, and other geospatial data products. They use specialized software, geographic information systems (GIS), and surveying equipment to gather, analyze, and interpret data about the earth’s surface. Cartographers can work in a range of industries, from environmental management to urban planning and military intelligence.
A cataract is a geological feature where a river or waterfall rushes over a step in the bedrock, producing a steep drop or cascade. These formations often occur where the bedrock consists of hard and soft layers, with the softer material being eroded more quickly. Over time, the waterfall erodes the softer rock, leading to the formation of a steep, rocky slope.
A cave is a natural underground chamber or series of chambers formed by the dissolution of limestone or other soluble rock. Caves can form in a variety of ways, but most are formed by groundwater slowly dissolving the rock over thousands of years. Caves are often rich in mineral formations such as stalactites and stalagmites, and some are home to unique ecosystems adapted to the dark, damp environment.
A cavern is a specific type of cave that is typically larger and more open than most caves. Caverns often have high ceilings and expansive chambers, making them popular destinations for tourists and spelunkers alike. They can form in a variety of ways, such as through the slow dissolution of limestone or the collapse of a large underground cavern.
Celestial sphere refers to an imaginary sphere that has an infinite radius and is centered on the observer’s location on Earth. It represents the entire sky and contains all the celestial objects visible from the Earth. The concept of a celestial sphere is a fundamental tool used in astronomy and navigation to understand the position and motion of celestial objects.
Cenozoic refers to the third and most recent geological era in the Phanerozoic Eon, which began about 66 million years ago and is ongoing. It is characterized by the evolution and diversification of mammals and birds, as well as the emergence of flowering plants. The Cenozoic era is divided into the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary periods.
Cerebroform is a term used to describe topographic features that resemble the shape of the human brain. This term is typically used to describe landscapes with curving ridges and valleys that resemble the convolutions of the cerebral cortex. The term “cerebroform” is derived from the Latin word “cerebrum,” meaning brain.
A cenote is a natural sinkhole formed by the collapse of limestone bedrock that exposes the groundwater beneath. Cenotes are common in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico and were considered sacred by the Mayans, who believed they were gateways to the underworld. Cenotes are often used for swimming and diving, and their clear blue water and unique geology make them popular tourist attractions.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock made up of the skeletal remains of marine organisms, such as coccoliths and foraminifera. It is commonly found in the form of cliffs and steep slopes along coastlines and in some inland regions. Chalk has been used for various purposes, including as a building material, in agriculture, and as a writing surface.
Chaparral is a type of vegetation found in areas with a Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by drought-resistant shrubs, such as manzanita, chamise, and sagebrush, that grow densely together. This vegetation type is common in the western United States, especially in California. The term “chaparral” is derived from the Spanish word “chaparro,” which means scrub oak.
A characteristic curve is a graph that displays the relationship between two variables. In the context of topography, a characteristic curve may be used to show how the flow of water changes as it travels through different soil types. The curve would show how the water infiltrates into the soil, the rate of percolation, and how much of the water is absorbed or runs off.
A chart is a graphical representation of data. In topography, a chart may be used to show the location of landmarks, such as mountains, rivers, or roads, on a map. A nautical chart, for example, shows the depths of water and the location of underwater hazards, such as rocks or reefs.
A chasm is a deep, narrow crack or crevice in the Earth’s surface. It is often formed by tectonic forces, such as the movement of plates, or by erosion caused by water. Chasms can range in size from small fissures to massive canyons, such as the Grand Canyon in Arizona.
A choropleth map is a type of thematic map that uses color to represent data. The map is divided into regions or polygons, such as states or counties, and the color of each region is based on a specific data value, such as population density or income level. Choropleth maps are commonly used in topography to show geographic patterns in data, such as rainfall or temperature, across a region or country.
Civil Engineering Survey
Civil engineering survey and civil survey are two closely related terms that refer to the process of determining the location and relative position of points on or beneath the Earth’s surface. Civil engineering surveying is used to plan and design construction projects such as buildings, bridges, and highways. Civil surveys, on the other hand, are typically used to create maps, determine property boundaries, and plan public works projects such as water and sewer lines.
A circular spot is a type of topographic feature that can be found on the Earth’s surface. It is typically a circular depression in the ground, often with steep sides, that may or may not be filled with water. Circular spots can form in a variety of ways, including erosion caused by wind or water, or the collapse of underground caverns or caves. In some cases, circular spots may be formed by volcanic activity, such as the formation of a volcanic crater or caldera.
A cirque is a bowl-shaped depression or basin that is formed at the head of a glacier. Cirques are typically located on steep mountainsides and are the result of erosion caused by glacial movement. As a glacier moves downhill, it erodes the rock beneath it, creating a hollow basin. Over time, this basin may fill with snow and ice, forming a glacier that continues to erode the surrounding rock and deepen the cirque.
A civil survey is a type of surveying technique that is used to map and measure land features for civil engineering purposes. These surveys are essential for developing, designing, and constructing infrastructure such as highways, buildings, bridges, and other public works. The process involves taking measurements of the land and gathering data on the soil type, vegetation, and other relevant information. Civil surveys are critical in the planning process, and they help to ensure that the infrastructure is built in the right location and is structurally sound.
Clastic is a term used to describe sedimentary rocks that are composed of fragments of other rocks or minerals. These fragments, known as clasts, can vary in size from tiny particles to boulders. The type of clasts found in a sedimentary rock can provide important information about the environment in which the rock was formed. For example, sandstone is a clastic rock composed of sand-sized grains, indicating that it was formed in a desert or beach environment. Shale, on the other hand, is a clastic rock composed of tiny clay particles, suggesting that it was formed in a quiet, low-energy environment such as a lake or deep ocean floor.
A cliff is a vertical or near-vertical rock face that is formed by erosion or other geological processes. Cliffs can be found in coastal regions, mountainous areas, and other areas with steep terrain. These natural formations are often popular tourist attractions due to their dramatic beauty and stunning views. However, they can also be dangerous, especially if people attempt to climb them without proper equipment and training.
Cliff drops refer to the vertical distance between the top of a cliff and the bottom. This measurement is often used in civil engineering and construction projects to determine the necessary equipment and techniques needed to build structures on or near cliffs.
A clinoform is a type of geological formation that is created by the deposition of sediment on a sloping surface. These formations are often found in coastal areas and are important in understanding the history of the region’s geology and sea level changes.
A closed contour is a line on a topographic map that connects points of equal elevation. These lines form closed loops and are used to represent the shape and elevation of land features such as hills, mountains, and valleys. Closed contours can be used to calculate the steepness of terrain, the volume of soil or rock removed during construction, and other important information for civil engineering projects.
Coast Engineering Survey
Coastal engineering survey is a process of identifying, analyzing, and addressing the issues related to coastal areas. Coastal areas are constantly changing due to the movement of sand, erosion, and other natural processes. A coastal engineering survey helps to identify and predict these changes to prevent or minimize the potential impact on the environment and human-made structures.
Coastal plains are relatively flat areas of land adjacent to a coast or shoreline. These areas can be influenced by tides, erosion, and deposition of sediment.
A col is a low point or saddle in a mountain range or ridge that separates two peaks. The term is also used to describe a gap in a ridge between two hills or mountains.
Colluvium refers to the loose material that accumulates at the base of a hill or slope due to erosion and weathering. It is composed of rocks, stones, and soil that have been transported by gravity down the slope.
Color code is a system of using different colors to represent different values or categories on a map. For example, a topographic map may use different colors to represent different elevations, such as green for low elevations and brown for high elevations. A color code can also be used to represent different types of land use, geological features, or other information on a map.
A color key is a legend that explains the meaning of colors or symbols used on a map or chart. It helps to identify the different features or data displayed on the map. A color key is usually placed in a corner of the map and can be referred to while reading the map.
Compass is a navigational tool that has been used for centuries to aid in finding directions. It consists of a magnetic needle that is suspended and free to rotate. The needle aligns itself with the Earth’s magnetic field, pointing to the North magnetic pole. The compass rose, a graphic representation of a compass, is used on maps and charts to indicate the cardinal directions: North, East, South, and West. The compass rose is often accompanied by a color key or legend, which is a guide to the colors used on the map and their corresponding meanings.
A compass rose is a circular design on a map that shows the orientation of cardinal directions, such as north, south, east, and west. It is usually located in the center of the map, and the cardinal directions are labeled around the circle. The compass rose helps the reader to orient themselves and understand the direction of the map.
A composite map is a map that is created by combining two or more individual maps to form a single map. The individual maps can be of different scales, orientations, or projections. This method is commonly used to create large-scale maps of an area that cover a broad range of information, such as topography, geology, or land use.
Compression is the process of squeezing or pressing something together, usually with great force. In geology, compression occurs when two tectonic plates move towards each other, resulting in the formation of mountains or other geological features. Compression can also occur in soils, rocks, and other materials under pressure, causing them to become denser and more compact. In civil engineering, compression is an important consideration in designing structures such as buildings, bridges, and roads, as they need to withstand the forces exerted on them by compression.
Computed position is a term used in navigation to describe the position of a ship, plane, or other vehicle, calculated using various instruments and methods. These methods may include using a sextant, GPS, or other navigation equipment. The computed position is an estimate of the vehicle’s location, which may be subject to error due to various factors such as environmental conditions or instrument accuracy.
Conduction is the transfer of heat or electricity through a substance or material, without any flow of the substance itself. In geology, conduction can refer to the transfer of heat through the Earth’s crust or other rock formations.
A confluence is a point where two or more rivers, streams, or other bodies of water meet. It can also refer to the merging of two or more geological features, such as valleys or canyons. The confluence is usually marked by the mixing of the waters or by a distinct change in the features of the landscape.
Conformal projection is a map projection that preserves angles locally, which means that shapes are accurately represented in small areas. It is useful for navigational purposes and is often used in aviation and marine navigation. One common conformal projection is the Mercator projection, which is commonly used for world maps.
Conglomerate is a type of sedimentary rock that is made up of rounded fragments of various sizes, such as pebbles, cobbles, and boulders. The fragments are typically held together by a matrix of sand, silt, or clay. Conglomerate can form in a variety of environments, such as riverbeds, beaches, and alluvial fans.
Construction survey is a type of survey that is conducted to provide information about the location, dimensions, and elevation of structures, such as buildings, bridges, and roads. The survey is used to determine the placement of foundations, utilities, and other infrastructure. Construction surveys are typically conducted before and during the construction process to ensure that the project is built according to the specifications.
Contiguous United States
Contiguous United States refers to the 48 states that are located on the continent of North America and are adjacent to one another, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. This term is commonly used to distinguish the contiguous states from the non-contiguous states and territories. The contiguous United States covers approximately 3.1 million square miles and is home to about 85% of the country’s population.
Continental refers to anything related to or located on a continent. In the context of geography, continental can refer to continental landmasses, such as the seven continents, as well as continental shelves and plates. The term is also used in other fields, such as biology, to refer to species that are found on a specific continent.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth’s continents over time due to the shifting of tectonic plates. This movement can result in the formation of mountains, rift valleys, and other features. The theory of continental drift was first proposed in the early 20th century by Alfred Wegener.
Contour refers to the shape or outline of a surface, usually a land surface. In topography, contour lines are used to represent points of equal elevation on a map. Contour lines allow for the visualization of changes in elevation over a given area, and the contour interval is the difference in elevation between adjacent contour lines.
Contour Interval is the difference in elevation between two consecutive contour lines on a contour map. A contour map is a type of topographic map that shows the shape and elevation of the land using contour lines. These contour lines are imaginary lines that connect points of equal elevation on the surface of the Earth. The contour interval is an important aspect of the contour map as it determines the amount of detail that can be seen on the map. A smaller contour interval will result in more contour lines being shown on the map, providing a more detailed view of the terrain.
In order to accurately create a contour map, a control network must be established. A control network is a series of known points on the ground that are used as a reference for mapping. These points are typically marked with a survey monument or other permanent marker. A coordinate system is also used to establish the location of these points and the contour lines. This system uses a grid of horizontal and vertical lines to create a reference system for locating points on a map.
A contour line is a line that connects points of equal elevation on a map. These lines help to show the shape and slope of the terrain. The contour interval is the vertical distance between two adjacent contour lines, which can vary depending on the scale of the map and the ruggedness of the terrain.
A contour map, also known as a topographic map, is a type of map that shows the shape and elevation of the land using contour lines. Contour lines connect points on the map that have the same elevation, creating a visual representation of the land’s surface. These lines are typically drawn at regular intervals, with closer lines indicating steeper slopes and wider spacing indicating flatter areas. Contour maps are commonly used in outdoor activities like hiking and mountaineering to help plan routes and assess the difficulty of terrain. They are also useful in a range of scientific and engineering fields, including geology, hydrology, and civil engineering, to study the physical characteristics of the land.
In surveying, control refers to a set of points or markers that are established to provide a reference system for other measurements. These points are typically located at known elevations and coordinates and are used to ensure accuracy and consistency in subsequent surveys. Control points can also be used to establish the orientation of a map or plan.
Convection is the transfer of heat through the movement of a fluid such as air or water. This movement can create convection cells, which can affect weather patterns and climate.
Convergence is the coming together of two or more tectonic plates. This process can result in the formation of mountain ranges, earthquakes, and volcanic activity. These concepts are important to understand when studying the Earth’s physical processes and how they shape our planet.
A control network is a network of survey points or markers used to control the position of other features on a map or in a survey. These points are typically precisely surveyed and located using specialized equipment, such as GPS or total stations. The positions of these control points are used to ensure that the features in the survey or map are accurately placed in their correct location. A control network is important in any large-scale mapping project, as it helps to ensure that the map is accurate and reliable.
A coordinate system is a system that is used to define the position of points in space. In cartography and surveying, a coordinate system is typically used to define the position of features on a map or in a survey. The most common coordinate system used is the Cartesian coordinate system, which is based on a grid of lines that are perpendicular to each other. Coordinates are used to represent the location of a point within a coordinate system, and are typically given as a pair of numbers (x, y) that correspond to the point’s position along the x and y axes.
Copper Plate Engraving
Copper plate engraving is a traditional method of printing maps, which involves engraving the map onto a copper plate. The engraving process involves cutting the map design into the copper plate using specialized tools. Once the plate has been engraved, it is inked and pressed onto paper to create a print of the map. Copper plate engraving was commonly used in the 18th and 19th centuries, and is still used today by some mapmakers who specialize in creating antique-style maps.
A coral reef is a type of marine ecosystem that is made up of coral and other organisms. Coral reefs are found in warm, shallow waters and are known for their vibrant colors and diverse marine life. Coral reefs are important habitats for a wide range of marine species, including fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. They also provide important ecosystem services, such as protecting shorelines from erosion and storm damage. Coral reefs are under threat from a range of factors, including climate change, pollution, and overfishing, and are in need of conservation efforts to ensure their survival.
Correlation refers to the relationship between two or more geologic features, such as rock layers or fossils, in different locations. Geologists use correlation to establish the age of rocks and to reconstruct the geologic history of an area. Correlation can be achieved through a variety of techniques, such as radiometric dating, biostratigraphy, and lithostratigraphy. By correlating different rock layers or fossil records, geologists can better understand the complex processes that have shaped the earth over time.
Craters are bowl-shaped depressions that form on the surface of the earth, moon, or other celestial objects. They are typically formed by the impact of a meteorite or asteroid, which creates a shockwave that blasts out material from the impact site. Craters can range in size from small impact craters to giant impact basins, and they are often named after the scientist who discovered them or the location where they were found.
A craton is a stable, ancient block of the earth’s crust that has not undergone significant tectonic activity for a long period of time. Cratons are typically found in the interior of continents, and they are characterized by their thick, stable crust and low levels of seismic activity. The oldest and most stable cratons are found in the Canadian Shield, the Australian Outback, and the African continent.
Creep can be observed through the use of creepmeters, instruments that measure the displacement of a point on a fault over time. By analyzing the data collected by creepmeters, scientists can gain insights into the behavior of faults and the stresses acting on them. Creep can also be identified by examining the features of the landscape, such as tilted trees and fences or distorted roadways, that result from the slow movement of the ground.
Creep is an important consideration in many fields, including engineering and geology. It can cause damage to buildings, roads, and other infrastructure, and can also affect the stability of slopes and hillsides. By studying and monitoring creep, researchers can better understand the risks associated with crustal deformation and work to mitigate its potential impacts.
A crest is the highest point of a hill or a mountain range. It is the point where the slope of the land begins to descend on both sides. In topography, crests are often used to describe the ridge of a mountain or a hill that runs along its top, forming a sharp edge. The term is also used to describe the highest point of a wave, such as a tidal wave or a tsunami. The crest of a wave is the point at which it reaches its maximum height before it breaks and crashes onto shore.
Crevasse refers to a deep crack or fissure in the surface of a glacier, often caused by the movement of the ice mass. Crevasse can also occur on a mountainside or in a canyon. They are particularly hazardous for hikers, climbers, and skiers who may unknowingly fall into them. Crevasse rescue techniques are an important part of mountain and glacier travel.
Critical elevation is the minimum elevation required for a location to be free from flooding during a flood event. It is the elevation that floodwaters are not expected to exceed, which is determined based on a number of factors, including topography, hydrology, and meteorology. The critical elevation is often used to set building codes and regulations for areas prone to flooding. If a location’s elevation falls below the critical elevation, it may be considered a floodplain and may be subject to flood insurance requirements or other restrictions. Critical elevation is also referred to as the flood protection elevation or the base flood elevation.
Cross-hatching is a technique used in cartography and drawing to indicate shading or texture. It is created by drawing multiple sets of parallel lines that intersect with another set of parallel lines at a perpendicular angle. The resulting pattern resembles a mesh or lattice and can convey the appearance of different materials or surfaces.
Cross-hatching is often used in topographical maps to indicate areas of relief or slope. By using different densities and angles of the intersecting lines, cartographers can create the illusion of three-dimensional terrain. In addition to topographical maps, cross-hatching is also used in architectural drawings, engineering plans, and artistic sketches.
The technique of cross-hatching has been used for centuries and can be found in art and cartography from around the world. It requires a steady hand and a keen eye for detail to create the desired effect. In addition to being visually striking, cross-hatching also provides a useful shorthand for representing complex terrain features in a clear and concise way.
Cross-section refers to a graphical representation of a vertical slice of the Earth’s surface or any other object or structure. It is typically drawn perpendicular to the horizontal plane and is used to display the internal structure and features of the object being analyzed. Cross-sections are commonly used in geology, engineering, and architecture, among other fields.
In geology, cross-sections are used to display the internal structure and features of geological formations, including sedimentary rocks, faults, and folds. Engineers use cross-sections to analyze the internal structure of a construction site, including the underlying soil, bedrock, and other geological features. In architecture, cross-sections are used to show the internal structure and features of a building, including walls, floors, and structural supports.
Cross-sections are created by drawing a line perpendicular to the horizontal plane and cutting through the object being analyzed. The resulting diagram provides a view of the internal structure of the object, including the depth, elevation, and shape of various features.
In geology, critical elevation refers to the height above sea level where a change in landscape occurs. It is often used to determine the boundary between two different geological formations or the point where a river changes from a steep gradient to a gentle slope. Critical elevation is an important concept in geology and can be used to determine the location of oil and gas reserves or other natural resources.
Cross sectioning refers to the process of creating a visual representation of a cross-section of a three-dimensional object, such as a landform or building. In topography, cross sections are created to show the vertical elevation of a landform, like a mountain or hill, along a specific line or path. These sections are often used to analyze changes in elevation or slope, and to create detailed maps and charts of topographical features.
Cross slope is a term used to describe the slope of a road or other surface across its width. It is usually measured in a percentage, and is used to ensure proper drainage and safety for drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians. Cross slope is important in topography because it can affect the way water flows across a landscape, and how erosion occurs. For example, a steep cross slope on a hillside can cause water to run off quickly, leading to increased erosion and landslides.
The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth, composed of solid rock that is divided into tectonic plates. In topography, the crust plays a significant role in shaping the landscape, as the movement of these plates over time can cause the formation of mountains, valleys, and other landforms.
Crustal deformation is the movement and deformation of the Earth’s crust, which can occur through a variety of mechanisms such as folding, faulting, and volcanic activity. Creep is a type of crustal deformation that occurs when rocks slowly and continuously move along a fault in response to stress. This movement is usually imperceptible, but over time can lead to significant changes in the landscape.
A cryptic contour is a contour line on a map that does not close upon itself, indicating a depression in the land. These contours are often difficult to see, and require close examination of the map to identify. They are important in topography because they can indicate the presence of a low-lying area, like a basin or valley, that may not be apparent from other map features.
A cuesta is a type of hill or ridge with a steep slope on one side and a gentle slope on the other. These landforms are often formed by erosion and weathering of sedimentary rock layers, with the steep side facing the direction of the prevailing winds or water flow. Cuestas are important in topography because they can affect the way water flows across a landscape and can create unique habitats for plant and animal species.
Cut slope is a type of slope that occurs when soil or rock is cut away from a hillside or embankment, creating a steep slope. Cut slopes are commonly seen in road construction, mining, and construction sites. The angle of the cut slope depends on several factors, including the type of soil or rock, the stability of the slope, and the purpose of the excavation.
Cut-and-fill is a common technique used in construction where the earth is excavated from one area (the cut) and used to fill in another area (the fill). This technique is used to create level areas for construction or to modify the shape of the land to meet the needs of the project.
Cutbank refers to a slope or cliff that is formed by the erosion of a stream or river. The cutbank is typically steeper than the surrounding terrain and is constantly eroding as the water cuts away at the soil and rock. The shape and size of the cutbank depend on the velocity of the water, the type of soil or rock, and the geology of the area.
Cut-off refers to a channel or ditch that is dug to divert water away from a certain area. This technique is commonly used to control flooding or to redirect water for irrigation purposes.
Cutoff line is a line that is drawn on a map or survey to indicate where the surface of the land has been cut away or removed, typically in preparation for construction or excavation. The cutoff line is an important reference point for determining the depth and shape of the excavation.
Cyclopean eye is a term used in vision science to refer to the perceived 3D visual information gathered by both eyes working together as a single entity. The concept is named after the mythical creature Cyclops, which was known for having a single large eye in the center of its forehead. The term “cyclopean” refers to the integration of the two slightly different images received by the eyes into a single, unified perception of the environment. This helps humans to perceive depth, distance, and spatial relationships in the world around them.
Cylindrical projection is a type of map projection that involves projecting the Earth’s surface onto a cylinder. This projection is commonly used for nautical charts and maps of mid-latitude regions, where the distortion in shape and size is relatively low. Cylindrical projections are characterized by straight meridians and parallel lines of latitude, and are often used in conjunction with a Mercator projection, which is a type of cylindrical projection that preserves shape but introduces greater distortion in size as one moves away from the equator.