WhiteClouds builds 3D Raised Relief Maps
Backsight is a surveying term used to describe the process of sighting a point with a previously established location. This is an essential step in the surveying process, as it helps to ensure the accuracy and precision of measurements. Surveyors use backsight to establish points on a map accurately, which is crucial in engineering, construction, and other related fields.
Backwash is a hydrological term that describes the movement of water back towards the sea after a wave has broken on the shore. This process can result in the erosion of the coastline over time, leading to the formation of coastal features such as cliffs and beaches. Badlands, on the other hand, refer to arid terrain characterized by deeply eroded and barren landscapes with little or no vegetation. These areas are typically formed due to the effect of water and wind erosion on soft sedimentary rock formations, resulting in rugged topography with steep slopes and sharp peaks. Barchan, or crescent-shaped sand dunes, are commonly found in these areas, where wind erosion is also a dominant geological process.
Badlands refer to an arid terrain characterized by deeply eroded and barren landscapes with little or no vegetation. These areas are typically formed due to the effect of water and wind erosion on soft sedimentary rock formations, which result in rugged topography with steep slopes and sharp peaks. The terrain is often marked by canyons, gullies, and ravines, which are cut into the landscape by running water. Barchan, or crescent-shaped sand dunes, are commonly found in these areas, where wind erosion is also a dominant geological process.
Bar scale is a visual representation of measurement used on maps and blueprints to help determine distances and scales. The bar scale typically features a ruler-like graphic that shows the relationship between the length on the map and the actual distance on the ground. Surveyors often use backsight, which is the sighting of a point with a previously established location, to establish points on a map accurately. The use of backsight in surveying is crucial to ensure the accuracy and precision of measurements. Backwash, on the other hand, is a hydrological term that refers to the flow of water back towards the sea after a wave has broken on the shore. This movement can result in the erosion of the coastline over time, leading to the formation of coastal features such as cliffs and beaches.
Barchan is a geological term that describes a crescent-shaped sand dune. These dunes are typically found in areas where wind erosion is a dominant geological process, such as in arid regions like deserts. Barchans are formed by the constant movement of sand particles by the wind, which eventually results in the formation of a crescent-shaped dune with its horns facing in the direction of the wind. These dunes can reach up to 30 meters in height and are commonly found in groups, known as barchan fields. Barchans are not only interesting geological features but are also essential in maintaining the balance of ecosystems in arid regions by providing a habitat for various plants and animals that are adapted to these harsh conditions.
A barrier island is a long, narrow island that runs parallel to the mainland coast. These islands are formed by the action of waves, tides, and currents, and are separated from the mainland by a lagoon or bay. Barrier islands are found in many parts of the world, but are most commonly found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These islands are often important habitats for a wide variety of plant and animal species, and provide valuable protection for coastal communities against storms and hurricanes.
Basalt is a common type of volcanic rock that is formed from the rapid cooling of lava. This rock is typically dark in color, and is characterized by its fine-grained texture and high density. Basalt is found in many parts of the world, and is commonly used as a building material, as well as for road construction and other industrial purposes. In topography, basalt can form prominent features such as cliffs, mesas, and buttes, and can be found in areas of volcanic activity or in regions with a history of volcanic activity.
A basin is a low-lying area of land that is surrounded by higher ground. Basins can be formed by a variety of natural processes, such as erosion, subsidence, or the filling in of a depression by sediment. Basins can vary in size from small, shallow depressions to large, deep valleys, and can be found in many different types of environments, including deserts, forests, and coastal regions. In topography, basins can be important features for water resource management, as they can be used to collect and store water for agricultural or domestic use.
Bathymetry is the study of the depth and topography of the ocean floor. This field of study involves the use of various techniques, such as sonar and satellite imagery, to map the ocean floor and to study the features and characteristics of the seafloor. Bathymetry is important for understanding the geology and biology of the ocean, as well as for navigation and resource exploration. In topography, bathymetry can also refer to the study of the depth and topography of inland bodies of water, such as lakes and rivers.
A bathymetric map is a type of map that shows the underwater topography or terrain of a body of water. This type of map is similar to a contour map but instead of showing the elevations of the land, it shows the depths of the water. Bathymetric maps are created using sonar technology to measure the distance from the water’s surface to the ocean floor. The data is then used to create detailed three-dimensional images of the underwater landscape, including features such as canyons, trenches, and underwater volcanoes. Bathymetric maps are commonly used in oceanography and marine geology to study the physical characteristics of the seafloor, including the distribution of marine life, the location of mineral deposits, and the movement of tectonic plates. These maps are also useful for navigation, particularly in the shipping and fishing industries.
A bay is a body of water that is partially enclosed by land. Bays can be formed by a variety of natural processes, such as erosion, glaciation, or the action of tides and currents. Bays can vary in size from small, shallow indentations to large, deep harbors, and can be found in many different types of environments, including coastal regions, lakes, and rivers. Bays are often important features for shipping and transportation, as well as for recreation and tourism.
A beach is a landform consisting of sand, gravel, or other sediment that is deposited by waves and tides along the shoreline. Beaches can vary in size and shape, and can be found in many different types of environments, including coastal regions, lakes, and rivers. Beaches are often important habitats for a wide variety of plant and animal species, and are popular destinations for recreation and tourism.
Bedrock is the solid, unweathered rock that underlies the soil, sediment, and other loose material on the surface of the Earth. Bedrock can vary in composition, texture, and age, and can be found in many different types of environments, including mountains, plains, and valleys. B edrock is an important factor in determining the topography of an area, as it can influence the shape and form of the landscape through processes such as erosion and weathering. In addition, bedrock can be an important resource for mining and construction, as it can provide valuable materials such as stone and metal ores.
A benchmark is a point of reference for elevation measurement in topography. It is a marked point on a monument, a building, or a rock formation with a known elevation relative to a vertical datum. Benchmark is used to establish the height of objects, such as mountains, buildings, and other landmarks. Surveyors and cartographers use benchmarks to create accurate maps and models of the terrain.
Bifurcation refers to the splitting of a river or stream into two or more channels. This can occur when a river encounters a resistant rock layer or other obstacle, causing the water to split and flow around it. Bifurcation can also occur when a river’s flow rate changes due to seasonal variations or human interference. The resulting channels may eventually rejoin or flow in different directions, creating a network of streams and rivers that shape the landscape.
Biodiversity refers to the variety of life in a specific habitat or ecosystem. It includes the variety of species, their genetic diversity, and their interaction with each other and with the environment. Biodiversity is important for maintaining ecological balance and preserving the stability of ecosystems. Topography plays a critical role in shaping biodiversity, as different landforms provide distinct habitats for different species.
The biosphere refers to the zone of the Earth where life exists, including all living organisms and their interactions with each other and with the physical environment. The biosphere is comprised of all ecosystems, including forests, oceans, grasslands, and wetlands, and is supported by the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Topography influences the biosphere by creating a diversity of habitats for different species, which in turn affect the overall health and productivity of the biosphere.
Bioturbation is the process by which living organisms, such as animals and plants, modify the physical and chemical properties of soil and sediment. This can include burrowing, digging, and mixing of soil layers, which can impact soil stability, nutrient cycling, and water infiltration. Bioturbation can also create habitats for other organisms, such as burrows for small mammals and invertebrates. Topography can influence bioturbation by creating different soil types and moisture levels that support different biota.
Black Topographic Line
A black topographic line refers to the contour line on a map that represents a change in elevation. These lines are drawn in black and are used to help visualize the shape and height of the terrain. They show where the elevation changes occur on the map, and they help hikers and other outdoor enthusiasts navigate through the landscape.
A block diagram is a diagram that shows the geological features of an area in a simplified way. The diagram represents the different rock layers and how they are arranged, as well as any faults, folds, or other geological features. Block diagrams are often used to help geologists and other scientists understand the structure of the earth’s crust and how it has changed over time.
A blowout is a depression or hollow caused by wind erosion. Blowouts are typically found in sandy areas, such as deserts and beaches, and are formed when wind erosion removes the top layer of sand, leaving a depression in the ground. Blowouts can vary in size, from small depressions to large dunes that have been hollowed out by the wind.
A bog is a type of wetland that is characterized by a high concentration of peat. Bogs are typically found in areas with cool and moist climates, such as northern regions of North America and Europe. Bogs are often acidic and nutrient-poor, and are home to a variety of unique plant species, such as mosses and carnivorous plants.
Border marks are physical markers that indicate the boundary between two pieces of land. These markers can be made of a variety of materials, such as stones, metal posts, or wooden stakes, and are often placed at regular intervals along the boundary line. Border marks are used to help landowners and surveyors determine the exact location of property boundaries and to prevent disputes over property lines.
Boundary refers to the line or area that separates two different geographical areas or territories. This line can be natural or man-made, and it defines the limits of a specific area. Boundary lines are often drawn on maps to help distinguish between different regions. In topography, boundary lines can represent the boundary between two different types of terrain or landforms.
Boundary lines refer to the imaginary lines on a map or on the ground that define the borders or limits of a specific area. These lines can be natural or man-made and are often used to demarcate different types of land use or ownership. They can also be used to establish territorial boundaries between countries or states.
A braided stream is a type of river channel that contains multiple channels that divide and rejoin as they flow downstream. Braided streams are characterized by their multiple channels and islands, which are formed by the deposition of sediment. T hese streams often occur in areas with high sediment loads and can change frequently due to changes in water flow or sediment supply.
A breakwater is a barrier built along the coast to protect harbors and shorelines from the force of waves. Breakwaters can be built in a variety of shapes and sizes, and they can be constructed from a range of materials such as rock, concrete, or steel.
Brown Topographic Line
A brown topographic line on a map represents contour lines that show the elevation of a specific area. These lines connect points of equal elevation, and they help to illustrate the shape and relief of the terrain. By following the contour lines, it is possible to determine the steepness of a slope, the height of a hill or mountain, and the depth of a depression.
A bump in topography is a minor and short rise on the surface of the land or ocean floor. Bumps are often found on flat terrain or the seafloor and can be caused by a variety of factors such as geological activity, sediment deposition, or erosion.
A burn refers to a Scottish term for a stream or a small river that flows through upland areas. These streams can be fast-flowing and have steep gradients, often carving out narrow and deep channels in the rock or soil. Burns can have an important impact on the surrounding ecosystem by providing freshwater for plants and animals.
A butte is a flat-topped hill with steep sides and a small, relatively flat summit area. These geological features are often found in arid or semi-arid regions and are formed by the erosion of the softer layers of rock that surround the harder layers at the top. Buttes can be found alone or in groups and are often used as landmarks for navigation.